In 1912 the English biochemist F. Hoapkins found that rats subjected to a diet product "purified", containing all substances hitherto considered necessary for nutrition, their growth stopped, which started again when rats were daily supplied him a small fresh milk.
This and other similar experiments demonstrated the existence in food of certain organic substances, previously unknown, essential for animal development. Substances that, in 1912 the biochemist Casimir Funk proposed naming vitamins, comes from the Latin word vita (life) and amine (amine necessary for life).
Vitamins are organic substances essential in the metabolic processes that occur in living things nutrition. Not provide energy, since not used as fuel, but without them the body is not able to take advantage of constructive elements and energy supplied by food.
Normally used inside cells as precursors of coenzymes, from which are developed thousands of enzymes that regulate chemical reactions of living cells.
Vitamins must be supplied through the diet, since the human body can not synthesize them. An exception is vitamin D, which can be formed in the skin on exposure to sunlight, and vitamins K, B1, B12 and folic acid, which are formed in small quantities in the intestinal flora.
With a balanced diet and plenty of fresh, natural products, we will have all the necessary vitamins and will not need any additional input in the form of supplements or herbal pharmacy. Increased biological needs requires an increase of these substances, as in certain stages of childhood, pregnancy, lactation and in old age. The consumption of snuff, alcohol or drugs in general causes more spending of some vitamins, so in these cases you may need nutritional supplements. We should note that most synthetic vitamins can not replace the organic, ie those contained in food or extracted from natural products (yeast, wheat germ, etc..). Although the molecules of the synthetic vitamins have the same structural elements as the organic, in many cases do not have the same spatial configuration, so that change their properties.
Are labile substances as easily altered by changes in temperature and pH, and also for prolonged storage.
Although all foods provide vitamins to a greater or lesser amount, there is no food that has them all, let alone in the quantities needed by the body. Therefore, there to seek a balanced and varied diet that includes plenty of fruits and vegetables, for its high content of vitamins.
Vitamin rich food
|Vitamin A||Fish liver, beef, veal and pork.
Spinach, carrots, broccoli, chicory, yellow squash, yellow corn.
Yeast, butter, cheese.
Apricot, persimmon, peach and melon.
Yeast, pork, pulses, bread, egg yolks, corn flour, peanuts, nuts
Pork liver, beef, beef.
|Vitamin B6||Yeast, flour, eggs, liver, fish, meat nerve.
Peanut seeds, soya.
Potatoes, spinach and legumes.
|Vitamin B12||Liver, kidneys (especially raw), fish, eggs, cheeses.|
Oranges, lemons, tangerines, tomatoes, cabbage, peppers, potatoes, parsley, turnips, spinach,
strawberries and melons.
Oil seeds, grain, corn, sunflower.
|Folic acid||Cornflakes, spinach, liver, bananas, almonds, peanuts, oranges, tomatoes, milk, eggs, potatoes and apricots.|
|VitaminK||Greens, spinach, cabbage, tomatoes, peas, beef liver, eggs.|